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Advanced Microwave Components
  Microwave Thin Film Circuits - Standard Materials Specifications, Properties and conversion charts
 
 

 
Properties Units Polished Density 996 Alum. Oxide As fired Density  996 Alum. Oxide Beryllium Oxide Aluminum Nitride Fused Silica Quartz Sapphire (Crystalline)
Chemical Composition   Al2O3 Al2O3 BeO AlN SiO2 Al2O3
Purity % 99.6 99.6 99.6 98 100 100
Color   White White White Tan Transparent Transparent
Nominal Density g/cm3 3.87 3.87 2.85 3.28 2.2 3.97
Surface Finish (Polished) m-inches <1.0 <4.0 2.0-4.0 <5.0 60/40 Optical <1.0m-inch CLA
Surface Finish (As fired) m-inches n/a 2-3 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Camber inch/inch .0003/.0005 0.002 .0003/.0005 .0003/.0005 .0003/.0005 .0003/.0005
Thickness inches .004-.025* .005-.025* .005-.025* .004-.025* .004-.025* .004-.025*
Thickness Tolerance inches ±0.0005 ±0.001 ±0.0005 ±0.0005 ±0.005 ±0.000
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) 10-6 7.0-8.3 (25-1000oC) 7.0-8.3 (25-1000oC) 9.0 (25-1000oC) 4.6 (25-300oC) 0.65 (20-320oC) A plane @ 25oC-5.3
Thermal Conductivity watts/m°K 26.9 26.9 270 170 1.4 46
Dielectric Constant @1MHz 9.9±.1 9.9±.1 6.5 8.6 3.826 11.5/9.3†
Dissipation Factor (Loss Tangent) @1MHz 0.0001 0.0001 0.0004 0.001 0.000015 .00086/.0003†
Hardness Rockwell 87 87 45 n/a 7 Mohs 1800/2200A Knoop
Flexural Strength K(10-3)lbs/sq.in 90 90 35 (4 pt. bend) 59 (4 pt. bend) 25 60
Compressive Strength M(10-3)lbs/sq.in 54 54 n/a n/a 161 350
Grain Size um (microns) <1.0 <1.0 9-16 5-7 Amorphous Amorphous
* Additional thickness and tolerances available upon request
† Value varies with orientation (“A” plane / “C” plane)

Conversion Chart Thermal Conductivity
TO GET MULTIPLY BY METALS   (Watts cm °C)
Microns = Angstroms x 0.0001 Silver (Ag) 4.08
Angstroms = Microns x 10,000 Copper (Cu) 3.94
Millimeters = Microns x 0.001 Gold (Au) 2.96
Microinches = Microns x 39.37 Aluminum (Al) 2.18
Mils = Microns x 0.03937 Beryllium (Be) 2.00
Mils = Millimeters x 39.37 Tungsten (W) 1.74
Inches = Millimeters x 0.03937 Rhodium (Rh) 1.50
Inches = Centimeters x 0.3937 Molybdenum (Mo) 1.46
      Brass (66%Cu, 34% Zn) 1.110
Microns = Microinches x 0.0254 Chromium (Cr) 0.937
Mils = Microinches x 0.001 Nickel (Ni) 0.920
Microns = Mils x 25.4 Platinum (Pt) 0.716
Millimeters = Mils x 0.0254 Tin (Sn) 0.666
Centimeters = Inches x 2.54 Tantalum (Ta) 0.575
Millimeters = Inches x 25.4 Lead (Pb) 0.353
      Titanium (Ti) 0.219
Sq. Inches = Sq. Centimeters x 0.15499 Manganese (Mn) 0.078
Sq. Centimeters = Sq. Inches x 6.45  
      INSULATORS   (Watts cm °C)
Cu. Inches = Cu. Centimeters x 0.06102 Diamond (CVD) 10.0–16.0
Cu. Centimeters = Cu. Inches x 16.39 Beryllium Oxide 99.5% (BeO) 2.61
      Aluminum Nitride (AIN) 1.70
Ounces = Grams x 0.03527 Boron Nitride (HBN 500o) 0.59
Pounds = Kilograms x 2.2046 Sapphire   0.46
Grams = Ounces x 28.349 Alumina Oxide 99.6% (AI2O3) 0.36
Kilograms = Pounds x 0.4536 Alumina Oxide 96% (AI2O3) 0.26
      Alumina Oxide 91% (AI2O3) 0.13
EQUIVALENTS Glass   0.015
1 Angstrom = 1 x 10-10m Mica   0.0043–.0062
1 Nanometer = 1 x 10-9m Air   0.00026
1 Micron = 1 x 10-6m DIE ATTACH-BONDING   (Watts cm °C)
1 Microinch = 39.37 x 10-6m Gold Germanium 88/12   0.8834
1 Microinch = 1 x 10-6m Gold Tin 80/20   0.6824
1 Millimeter = 1 x 10-3m Tin Lead Solder (Sn62)   0.4921
TEMPERATURE Indium 100%   0.2386
Degrees F = 9/5 (Degrees C) + 32   Silver Filled Epoxy   0.0156
Degrees C = 5/9 (Degrees F) – 32   Epoxy   0.0099
SOLDERING TO GOLD - ALLOY CHOICE
The following indium alloys can be used successfully against gold without the harmful effects caused when tin bearing alloys are used:
Composition Melting Temperature   (Liquidus / Solidus) Product
97In-3Ag 143°C E Indalloy 290
80In-15Pb-5Ag 154°C / 149°C Indalloy 2
100In 157°C MP Indalloy 4
70In-30Pb 175°C / 165°C Indalloy 204
60In-40Pb 181°C / 173°C Indalloy  205
50In-50Pb 210°C / 178°C Indalloy  7
60Pb-40In 231°C / 197°C Indalloy 206
 90In-10Ag 237°C / 141°C Indalloy 3
75Pb-25In 266°C / 240°C Indalloy 1
81Pb-19In 275°C / 260°C Indalloy150
90Pb-5In-5Ag 310°C / 290°C Indalloy12
92.5Pb-5In-2.5Ag 310°C / 300°C Indalloy164
95Pb-5In 313°C / 300°C Indalloy11

Other SOLDERS Composition Melting Temperature °C
52In-48Sn                                            118
52Bi-48Sn                        138
97In-3Ag                        143
91Sn-9Zn                        199
91.2Sn-8.8Zn           199/199
89Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi                     197/187
95Sn-5Sb                                    235/240
42Sn-58Bi                138/138
63Sn-37Pb                183/183
Sn/Ag/Cu                  217-218
93.6Sn-4.7Ag-1.7Cu    217
96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu 219/217
95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu(Indalloy 241) 217
95.2Sn-3.8Ag-1.0Cu (SN96CI) 217
95.5Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu (Indalloy 246)   217
95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu (Indalloy 252) 217
Sn/Ag/Cu(/Sb)              215-217
96.3Sn-2.5Ag-0.7Cu-0.5Sb(Castin) 210/217
65Sn-25Ag-10Sb                  233
97Sn-3Cu                 227-300
99.3Sn-0.7Cu (Indalloy 244) 229
96Sn-4Ag is a fairly common alloy with a long history in the hybrid circuit industry
96.5Sn-3.5Ag (Indalloy 121) 221
93Sn-3.5Ag-3.0In-0.5Bi 214/190
91.4Sn-3.2Ag-2.7In-2.7Bi                210/190
87.5Sn-3.5Ag-6.0In-3.0Bi 206/165
92Sn-3.5Ag-4.0In-0.5Bi 211/190
91.8Sn-3.4Ag-4.8Bi (Indalloy 249) 205/210
92.5Sn-3.5Ag-1.0Cu-3Bi(LF-C2) 208/213
77.2Sn-20In-2.8Ag (Indalloy 227) 175-187
Potentially Problematic Elements
- Zinc - corrosivity, oxidation, ease of use
- Cadmium - toxicity, WEEE directive
- Gallium - supply, costs, brittleness
- Bismuth - embrittlement, secondary eutectic of 96C formed if exposed to lead.
- Indium - cost, supply, poor resistance to corrosion and rapid oxide formation during melting.
- Lead - toxicity
MATERIAL CONDUCTIVITY MATERIAL CONDUCTIVITY MATERIAL CONDUCTIVITY
  (Mho/meter) x 10   (Mho/meter) x 10   (Mho/meter) x 10
Tantalum Nitride 0.000074 Palladium 0.0926 Brass (66%Cu, 34%Zn) 0.2564
Carbon 0.0006–0.0007 Indium 0.1111 Aluminum 0.3817
Nichrome (80%Ni, 20%Cr) 0.0093 Nickel 0.1449 Gold 0.4098
Lead 0.047 Tungsten 0.184 Copper 0.5800
Sn63 Solder 0.0667 Rhodium 0.1961 Silver 0.6173
Tin 0.087 Beryllium 0.2188    
FUSING CURRENT [A] of 99.99% GOLD WIRE
Wire diameter Wire length (mm)
(mil) 1 2 3 5 10 10 
0.8 1.74 0.87 0.58 0.35 0.17 0.39 
1.0 2.71 1.36 0.90 0.54 0.27 0.52 
1.2 3.91 1.95 1.30 0.78 0.39 0.67 
1.3 4.73 2.36 1.58 0.95 0.48 0.73 
1.5 6.27 3.13 2.09 1.26 0.62 N/A 
2.0 10.85 5.43 3.62 2.17 1.08 N/A 
  Note 1 Note 2
Note1: Obtained from calculation according to IEEE (Threshold time : 10sec)
Note 2: Obtained from experiment (Threshold time : 5sec)
Remark : As experimental fusing current is higher than calculated fusing current as shown at above table, it is better to use fusing current from calculation in consideration of safety design.

Electrical characteristic of 4N(99.99%) gold wire sample length 10mm, room temperature in the air
Wire size vs. Electrical resistance
Wire size [mils] 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.9
Electrical resistance [ohms] 0.150 0.090 0.060 0.047 0.037 0.035 0.022 0.020 0.017 0.016 0.015 0.015

Home>MIC TECHNOLOGY AND THIN FILM CIRCUITS> Last update: July 01, 2009

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